Wrong Views and the
Three Evil Philosophies

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Here, the term “wrong views” includes erroneous concepts that make up the “three evil philosophies that lead to a certain bad rebirth” (niyata-micchā-diṭṭhi) for anyone who persists and clings to them.

These are:

  1. The denial of the effect (vipāka) of good and bad actions (kamma). This is the philosophical direction of moral nihilism. Moral nihilism rejects the moral values of good and evil and is equivalent to amoralism.
  2. The denial of both the cause and the effect (vipāka) of good and bad actions (kamma). This is the fatalistic philosophy. Fatalism as a way of philosophical thinking presents the moral part of good or bad actions as advice on apathy in the course of events.
  3. The complete denial of good and bad actions. According to this way of philosophical thinking, good and bad actions have no capacity, i.e. non-ethical dualism.